Middle Ages

5th to 15th Century


  • The Summer Palace is a vast complex of lakes, gardens, and palaces in Beijing. While it was an imperial garden in Qing Dynasty, the Summer Palace dates back to the Jin dynasty in 1153, when the Jin capital was moved from Huining Prefecture to Yanjing in the Fragrant Hills and Jade Spring Hill in the northwest of Beijing.
  • The Great Wall of China is a stone, brick and wood fortification wall built along the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC and were later joined together and made bigger and stronger.  The majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).
  • The Forbidden City is the former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty. The Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years.  It was constructed from 1406 to 1420.

Central America

  • Yaxha a Mesoamerican archaeological site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization located in Guatemala. Yaxha was the third largest city in the region and experienced its maximum power during the Early Classic period (250–600 CE), but its first settlement was founded sometime in the Middle Preclassic period (c. 1000–350 BCE).
  • Tikal is the ruin of an ancient city in Guatemala rainforest that was once one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient Maya. Some monumental architecture dates back as far as the 4th century BC, but Tikal was most powerful in the Classic Period, c. 200 to 900 CE.

Latin America

  • Moray is an archaeological site in Peru that contains unusual Inca and Wari ruins, mostly consisting of several terraced circular depressions, with depths as large as 98 feet.  They date back as far as 600-1100 CE.
  • Huaca Pucllana served as an important ceremonial and administrative center for the advancement of the Lima Culture, a society which developed in the Peruvian Central Coast between the years of 200 CE and 700 CE.
  • Machu Picchu is a 15th Century citadel in Southern Peru constructed for Inca (Inka) emporor Pachacuti around 1450.
  • Ollantaytambo is a town and an Inca archaeological site in southern Peru about 45 miles from Cusco.  At 9,160 feet above sea level, Ollantaytambo was during the mid-15th century the royal estate of Inca Emperor Pachacuti, who conquered the region and built the town and a ceremonial center. During the Spanish conquest of Peru, Ollantaytambo was a stronghold for Manco Inca Yupanqui, leader of the Inca resistance.
  • Quorikancha was built around 1438-1471 CE. Located in Cusco, the temple once had walls covered in sheets of gold, and an adjacent courtyard was filled with golden statues. The Spanish required the Inca to raise a ransom in gold for the life of one of its leaders, Atahualpa.  Today, the early stonework serves as the foundation for the Santo Domingo church and convent and the Inka foundation has survived earthquakes that toppled portions of the church.


Germanic Empires

Crusades and Holy Roman Empire

France in the Late Middle Ages

England in the Middle Ages

Ireland in the Middle Ages

Scotland in the Middle Ages

Spain in the Middle Ages

Portugal in the Middle Ages

Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages


The Spread of Islam